Zero To Five References

Kirkland Promise



Peace and quiet, please (at first)

Petersen, Clarence. “Why Wait for Birth to Begin Talking to Baby?” Chicago Tribune 17 Dec. 1987.

“Frequently Asked Questions.” Babyplus: Prenatal Education System. Web.

De Graaf-Peters, Victorine B., and Mijna Hadders-Algra. “Ontogeny of the Human Central Nervous System: What Is Happening When?” Early Human Development 82.4 (2006): 257-66.

Eating for two? Not exactly.

Watkins, Margaret L., Sonja A. Rasmussen, Margaret A. Honein, Lorenzo D. Botto, and Cynthia A. Moore. “Maternal Obesity and Risk for Birth Defects.” Pediatrics 111.5 (2003): 1152-1158.

Coletta, Jaclyn M., Stacey J. Bell, and Ashley S. Roman. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy.” Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology 3.4 (2010): 163-71.

Simopoulos, A.P. “The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56.8 (2002): 365-79.

Hibbeln, Joseph R., John M. Davis, Colin Steer, Pauline Emmett, Imogen Rogers, Cathy Williams, and Jean Golding. “Maternal Seafood Consumption in Pregnancy and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Childhood (ALSPAC Study): An Observational Cohort Study.” The Lancet 369.9561 (2007): 578-85.

Raatikainen, Kaisa, Nonna Heiskanen, and Seppo Heinonen. “Transition from Overweight to Obesity Worsens Pregnancy Outcome in a BMI-dependent Manner.” Obesity 14.1 (2006): 165-71.

Scott-Pillai, R., D. Spence, CR Cardwell, A. Hunter, and VA Holmes. “The Impact of Body Mass Index on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes: A Retrospective Study in a UK Obstetric Population, 2004-2011.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 110.8 (2013): 932-39.

The Endocrine Society. “Pregnant women can prevent excess weight gain with simple steps, study finds.” ScienceDaily, 6 Jun. 2011.

Exercise 30 minutes a day

Cohn, Meredith. “Hopkins Looks into Fitness Guidelines for Pregnant Women.” The Baltimore Sun 03 Nov. 2010

Brown, Wendy. “The Benefits of Physical Activity during Pregnancy.” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 5.1 (2002): 37-45.

Melzer, Katarina, Yves Schutz, Michel Boulvain, and Bengt Kayser. “Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Cardiovascular Adaptations, Recommendations and Pregnancy Outcomes.” Sports Medicine 40.6 (2010): 493-507.

Stress less

Buss, Claudia, Sonja Entringer, James M. Swanson, and Pathik D. Wadhwa. “The Role of Stress in Brain Development: The Gestational Environment’s Long-Term Effects on the Brain.” The Dana Foundation. 25 Apr. 2012. Web. .

Laplante, David P., Alain Brunet, Norbert Schmitz, Antonio Ciampi, and Suzanne King. “Project Ice Storm: Prenatal Maternal Stress Affects Cognitive and Linguistic Functioning in 5 1/2-Year-Old Children.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47.9 (2008): 1063-1072.

“Project Ice Storm: Continuing Effects of Prenatal Stress on Children’s Physical, Cognitive, and Behavioural Development in Adolescence.” McGill University, 16 July 2012. Web. .

Be laid-back about breastfeeding

Shute, Nancy. “To Succeed At Breast-Feeding, Most New Moms Could Use Help.”NPR. 23 Sept. 2013.

Underwood, Tripp. “Can Breastfeeding for Longer Make a Child Smarter?” Thriving – Child’s Hospital Boston’s Pediatric Health Blog. 31 July 2013. .

Sing or read to your belly

Hepper, Peter G., and B. Sara Shahidullah. “Development of Fetal Hearing.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 71.2 (1994): F81-87.

Babies Listen and Learn While in the Womb (quote from Patricia Kuhl: fetus can’t hear dad’s voice)

Split the chores. No, equally.

Parker, Kim, and Wendy Wang. “Roles of Moms and Dads Converge as They Balance Work and Family.” Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. 14 Mar. 2013. .

Mundy, Liza. “The Gay Guide to Wedded Bliss.” The Atlantic. 22 May 2013. Web. .

Gager, Constance T., and Scott T. Yabiku. “Who Has the Time? The Relationship Between Household Labor Time and Sexual Frequency.” Journal of Family Issues 31.2 (2010): 135-63.

Shellenbarger, Sue. “Housework Pays Off Between the Sheets.” The Wall Street Journal. 21 Oct. 2009. Web. .

Seppa, Nathan. “Some Chores Linked to Less Sex.” Science News. 30 Jan. 2013. .

Ogolsky, Brian G., and Jill R. Bowers. “A Meta-analytic Review of Relationship Maintenance and Its Correlates.” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 30.3 (2013): 343-67.

If you’re suffering, get help

Stone, Katherine. “Depression in Men: A Dad’s Story of Male Postpartum Depression.” Postpartum Progress. 24 Apr. 2012. .

Expect conflict as a couple

The Gottman Institute. Bringing Baby Home Program. The Gottman Institute. Web. .

Heinicke, Christoph M., Donald Guthrie, and Gloria Ruth. “Marital Adaptation, Divorce, and Parent-infant Development: A Prospective Study.” Infant Mental Health Journal 18.3 (1997): 282-99.


Prepare to be amazed

Meltzoff, Andrew N. “Born to Learn: What Infants Learn from Watching Us.” The Role of Early Experience in Infant Development. Skillman, New Jersey: Pediatric Institute Publications, 1999.

Gopnik, Alison. “How Babies Think.” Scientific American July 2010: 76-81.

What Do Babies Think? Perf. Alison Gopnik. TED Talks, 2011. Video.

Reddy, Sumathi. “Wise Beyond Their Years: What Babies Really Know.” The Wall Street Journal. 11 Feb. 2013. Web. .

National Science Foundation. Young Babies Prefer Helpers over Hinderers. Web. .

Eric Lander at Aspen Ideas 2013 Afternoon of Conversation. Perf. Eric Lander. Aspen Ideas Festival. 1 July 2013. Web. .

Bryner, Jeanna. “Babies’ Brains Churning With Activity.” Livescience. 11 Aug. 2009. .

Create a feeling of safety

Dewar, Gwen. “Stress In Babies: How Parents Keep Babies Calm, Happy, and Emotionally Healthy.” Parenting Science. 2013. .

Davies, Patrick T., Melissa L. Sturge-Apple, Dante Ciccetti, and E. Mark Cummings. “The Role of Child Adrenocortical Functioning in Pathways Between Interparental Conflict and Child Maladjustment.” Developmental Psychology 43.4 (2007): 918-30.

Thompson, Laura A., and Wenda R. Trevathan. “Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Learning In Three-Month-Old Infants.” Infant Behavior and Development 31.1 (2008): 92-106.

McCoy, Kathleen, E. Mark Cummings, and Patrick T. Davies. “Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Emotional Security and Children’s Prosocial Behavior.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50.3 (2009): 270-79.

Graham, Alice M., Philip A. Fisher, and Jennifer H. Pfeifer. “What Sleeping Babies Hear: An FMRI Study of Interparental Conflict and Infants’ Emotion Processing.”Psychological Science 24.5 (2013): 782-89.

Rutter, Michael, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke. “X. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the Era Study, Inferences, and Research Implication.” Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 75.1 (2010): 212-29.

Comfort newborn with the familiar

Varendi, Heili, Kyllike Christensson, Richard H. Porter, and Jan Winberg. “Soothing Effect of Amniotic Fluid Smell in Newborn Infants.” Early Human Development 51.1 (1998): 47-55.

Cuddle with baby

Feldman, Ruth, Zehava Rosenthal, and Arthur I. Eidelman. “Maternal-Preterm Skin-to-Skin Contact Enhances Child Physiologic Organization and Cognitive Control Across the First 10 Years of Life.” Biological Psychiatry 75.1 (2014): 56-64.

Get in sync

Serve-and-return interactions wire the brain: Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University, “Key Concepts: Serve and Return

Matched interactions activate pleasure center in baby’s brain: Reddy, Sumathi. “Wise Beyond Their Years: What Babies Really Know.” The Wall Street Journal. 11 Feb. 2013.

Lag of less than 1 second: Feldman, Ruth, Romi Magori-Cohen, Giora Galili, Magi Singer, and Yoram Louzoun. “Mother and Infant Coordinate Heart Rhythms through Episodes of Interaction Synchrony.” Infant Behavior and Development 34.4 (2011): 569-77.

Still Face Experiment (video): Dr. Ed Tronick. Perf. Dr. Ed Tronick. UMass Boston, 2009.

Bick, Johanna, and Mary Dozier. “The Effectiveness of an Attachment-based Intervention in Promoting Foster Mothers’ Sensitivity toward Foster Infants.” Infant Mental Health Journal 34.2 (2013).


Speak in a singsongy voice

Widdicombe, Lizzie. “Protect & Serve: Partners.” The New Yorker 8 Oct. 2012: 38-40.

Talk to your baby a ton

University of Washington. News and Information. While in Womb, Babies Begin Learning Language from Their Mothers. University of Washington. 2 Jan. 2013. Web. .

Stanford University. Stanford Report. Talking Directly to Toddlers Strengthens Their Language Skills, Stanford Research Shows. Stanford. 15 Oct. 2013. Web. .

LENA Research Foundation. Get Accurate Information on Your Child’s Language Development with LENA. LENA: Every Word Counts. Web. .

Moon, Christine, Hugo Lagercrantz, and Patricia K. Kuhl. “Language Experienced in Utero Affects Vowel Perception after Birth: A Two-country Study.” Acta Paediatrica 102.2 (2013): 156-60.

Yardley, William. “Betty Hart Dies at 85; Studied Disparities in Children’s Vocabulary Growth.” New York Times 25 Oct. 2012.

Read together

Wasik, Barbara A., and Mary Alice Bond. “Beyond the Pages of a Book: Interactive Book Reading and Language Development in Preschool Classrooms.” Journal of Educational Psychology 93.2 (2001): 243-50.

Institute of Education Sciences. What Works Clearinghouse. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse. Institute of Education Sciences, 8 Feb. 2007. Web. .

Zuckerman, Barry. “Promoting Early Literacy in Pediatric Practice: Twenty Years of Reach Out and Read.” Pediatrics 124.6 (2009): 1660-1665.

Reading Rockets. Dialogic Reading: An Effective Way to Read to Preschoolers. Reading Rockets. WETA Public Broadcasting. Web. .

“Dialogic Reading: How to Actively Involve Your Child in Reading.” Reach Out and Read. Web. .

National Institutes of Health. NICHD Publications. Findings and Determinations of the National Reading Panel by Topic Areas. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 31 Aug. 2006. Web. .

Blevins, Wiley. “Teach With Phonics Skills Chart.” Scholastic. Web. .

Cunningham, Anne E., and Keith E. Stanovich. “What Reading Does for the Mind.”Journal of Direct Instruction 1.2 (2001): 137-49.

Kuo, Alice A., Todd M. Franke, Michael Regalado, and Neal Halfon. “Parent Report of Reading to Young Children.” Pediatrics 113 (2004): 1944-1951.

Miller, Carolyn, Kathryn Zickuhr, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell. “Parents, Children, Libraries, and Reading – Part 3: Parents and Reading to Children.” Pew Internet. Pew Research Center, 1 May 2013. Web. .

Say, ‘You worked so hard!’

Mueller, Claudia M., and Carol S. Dweck. “Praise for Intelligence Can Undermine Children’s Motivation and Performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75.1 (1998): 33-52.

Donald, Brooke. “Babies Whose Efforts Are Praised Become More Motivated Kids, Say Stanford Researchers.” Stanford News. 12 Feb. 2013. Web. .

Mueller, C.M., & Dweck, C.S. (1996, April). Implicit theories of intelligence: Relation of parental beliefs to children’s expectations. Postersession presented at Head Start’s Third National Research Conference, Washington, DC

“You Can Grow Your Intelligence” Mindset Works. Web. .

Dweck, Carol S. “Brainology: Transforming Students’ Motivation to Learn.” Independent School Magazine Winter 2008. Web. .

Teach sign language

Thompson, Rachel H., Nicole M. Cotnoir-Bichelman, and Kelly A. Dancho. “Enhancing Early Communication through Infant Sign Training.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 40.1 (2007): 15-23.

Thompson, Rachel H., Paige M. McKerchar, and Kelly A. Dancho. “The Effects of Delayed Physical Prompts and Reinforcement on Infant Sign Language Acquisition.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 37.3 (2004): 379-83.

Normand, Matthew P., Mychal A. Machado, and Allison J. Morley. “Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 44.2 (2011): 305-14.

Barnes, Susan Kubic. “Sign Language With Babies: What Difference Does It Make?”Dimensions of Early Childhood 38.1 (2010): 21-30.

Daniels, Marilyn. “Happy Hands: The Effect of ASL on Hearing Children’s Literacy.”Reading Research and Instruction 44.1 (2004): 86-100.

Mohler, James L. The Visual-Spatial System. Purdue University. PDF.

Plan playdates in a second language

Kuhl, Patricia K. “Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education.” Mind, Brain, and Education 5.3 (2011): 128-42.

Kuhl, Patricia K., Feng-Ming Tsao, and Huei-Mei Liu. “Foreign-language Experience in Infancy: Effects of Short-term Exposure and Social Interaction on Phonetic Learning.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100.15 (2003): 9096-9101.

Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit. “Why Bilinguals Are Smarter.” New York Times. 17 Mar. 2012. Web. .

The Linguistic Genius of Babies. Patricia Kuhl. TEDxRainier. TED Talks, Feb. 2011. Web. .

Grosjean, François. “What Parents Want to Know about Bilingualism.” The Bilingual Family Newsletter 26.4 (2009): 1-6. François Grosjean: Professor Emeritus. Web. .

Meade, Stephanie. “Why OPOL Doesn’t Always Work.” InCulture Parent: For Parents Raising Little Global Citizens. N.p., 24 Apr. 2013. Web. .

“From Linguist to Mum: Looking Back.” The Piri-Piri Lexicon. 23 Apr. 2013. Web. .

Sleep, Eat, and Potty

Guard sleep

Callahan, Alice. “Why Sleep Matters to Babies and Parents.” Science of Mom: The Heart and Science of Parenting. 13 Feb. 2012. Web. .

“Changes in Sleep with Age.” Healthy Sleep. Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School, 18 Dec. 2007. Web. .

McKenna, James J. “Cosleeping and Biological Imperatives: Why Human Babies Do Not and Should Not Sleep Alone.” Neuroantrhopology. 21 Dec. 2008. Web. .

Mindell, Jodi A., Lorena S. Telofski, Benjamin Wiegand, and Ellen S. Kurtz. “A Nightly Bedtime Routine: Impact on Sleep in Young Children and Maternal Mood.” Sleep. 32.5 (2009): 599-606.

Help baby sleep better at night

Skuladottir, A., and M. Thome. “Changes in Infant Sleep Problems after a Family-centered Intervention.” Pediatric Nursing 29.5 (2003): 375-78.

McKenna, James J. “Cosleeping and Biological Imperatives: Why Human Babies Do Not and Should Not Sleep Alone.” Neuroantrhopology. 21 Dec. 2008. Web. .

Dewar, Gwen. “Bed sharing with infants: Can it be done safely?” Parenting Science. .

Gerard, Claudia M., Kathleen A. Harris, and Bradley T. Thach. “Spontaneous Arousals in Supine Infants While Swaddled and Unswaddled During Rapid Eye Movement and Quiet Sleep.” Pediatrics 110.6 (2002).

Mindell, Jodi A., Lorena S. Telofski, Benjamin Wiegand, and Ellen S. Kurtz. “A Nightly Bedtime Routine: Impact on Sleep in Young Children and Maternal Mood.” Sleep. 32.5 (2009): 599-606.

Crying it out, for a time, is just fine

Price, Anna M.H., Melissa Wake, Obioha C. Ukoumunne, and Harriet Hiscock. “Five-Year Follow-up of Harms and Benefits of Behavioral Infant Sleep Intervention: Randomized Trial.” Pediatrics. 9 Sept. 2012. Web.

Ferber, Richard. Solve Your Child’s Sleep Problems: The World’s Bestselling Guide to Helping Your Child Sleep through the Night. London: Vermilion, 2013.

Weissbluth, Marc. Healthy Sleep Habits, Happy Child: A Step-by-step Program for a Good Night’s Sleep. New York: Ballantine, 2005.

Preserve preschoolers’ naps

Kurdziel, Laura, Kasey Duclos, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer. “Sleep Spindles in Midday Naps Enhance Learning in Preschool Children.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110.43 (2013): 17267-17272.

Kelly, Yvonne, John Kelly, and Amanda Sacker. “Changes in Bedtime Schedules and Behavioral Difficulties in 7 Year Old Children.” Pediatrics 132.5 (2013): 1184-1193.

Make bedtime less crazy

Benaroya, Melissa. “Is It Time For Your Family To Hit The Charts? (And We Are Not Talkin’ Top 40).” Grow Parenting: Cultivating Healthy Families. 5 Mar. 2013. Web. .

Nelson, Jane, and Katie Clark. “Routines.” Positive Discipline. 19 Oct. 2010. Web. .

Natkin, Sarina Behar. “Crazy Time: A Solution For Bedtimes Gone Wild.” Grow Parenting: Cultivating Healthy Families. 8 June 2011. Web. .

‘Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.’

Moss, Michael. “The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food.” New York Times. 20 Feb. 2013.

Satter, Ellyn. “Eating Competence: Definition and Evidence for the Satter Eating Competence Model.” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 39.5 (2007): S142-153.

Wardle, J., M-L Herrera, L. Cooke, and E.L. Gibson. “Modifying Children’s Food Preferences: The Effects of Exposure and Reward on Acceptance of an Unfamiliar Vegetable.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57 (2003): 341-348.

Blissett, Jacqueline, Carmel Bennett, Jessica Donohoe, Samantha Rogers, and Suzanne Higgs. “Predicting Successful Introduction of Novel Fruit to Preschool Children.”Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 112.12 (2012): 1959-1967.

Vollrath, Margarete E., Serena Tonstad, Mary K. Rothbart, and Sarah E. Hampson. “Infant Temperament Is Associated with Potentially Obesogenic Diet at 18 Months.” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 6.2 (2011): 408-14.

“Farmers’ Market Tips: Storing Fruits & Vegetables.” Ecology Center. Web. .

Let baby decide how much to eat

Satter, Ellyn. “Eating Competence: Definition and Evidence for the Satter Eating Competence Model.” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 39.5 (2007): S142-153.

Don’t force the potty

Dewar, Gwen. “Infant toilet training: An evidence-based guide.” Parenting Science. .

Dewar, Gwen. “The science of toilet training: What research tells us about timing.” Parenting Science. .

Dewar, Gwen. “Toilet training in less than a day? An evidence-based review of ‘fast-track’ toilet training techniques.” Parenting Science. .

Moyer, Melinda Wenner. “Slate’s Definitive Guide to Potty Training.” Slate. 8 July 2013. Web. .

Shute, Nancy. “Why Toilet Training Can Trip Up Parents and Doctors.” National Public Radio. 8 Aug. 2011. Web. .


When tots grab toys, wait and see

Svetlova, Margarita, Sara R. Nichols, and Celia A. Brownell. “Toddlers’ Prosocial Behavior: From Instrumental to Empathic to Altruistic Helping.” Child development 81.6 (2010): 1814–1827. PMC. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.

Make music with baby

Gerry, David, Andrea Unrau, and Laurel J. Trainor. “Active Music Classes in Infancy Enhance Musical, Communicative and Social Development.” Developmental Science 15.3 (2012): 398-407.

Hull, Kathryn B. “Why Teach Music?” Music Teachers of the Desert. California Association of Professional Music Teachers, 1999. Web. .

Mehr, Samuel A., Adena Schachner, Rachel C. Katz, and Elizabeth S. Spelke. “Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment.” PLoS ONE 8.12 (2007).

Play at self-control

Diamond, Adele, and Kathleen Lee. “Interventions Shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4–12 Years Old.” Science 333.6045 (2011): 959-64.

Tominey, Shauna L., and Megan M. McClelland. “Red Light, Purple Light: Findings From a Randomized Trial Using Circle Time Games to Improve Behavioral Self-Regulation in Preschool.” Early Education and Development 22.3 (2011): 489-519.

Wanless, SB, MM McClelland, AC Acock, CC Ponitz, SH Son, X. Lan, FJ Morrison, JL Chen, FM Chen, K. Lee, M. Sung, and S. Li. “Measuring Behavioral Regulation in Four Societies.” Psychological Assessment 23.2 (2011): 364-78.

Valiente, Carlos, Nancy Eisenberg, Rg Haugen, Tracy L. Spinrad, Claire Hofer, Jeffrey Liew, and Anne Kupfer. “Children’s Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation Through Social Functioning.” Early Education and Development 22.3 (2011): 411-33.

“Preschool Children Who Can Pay Attention More Likely to Finish College: Early Reading and Math Not Predictive of College Completion.” Science Daily. 6 Aug. 2012. Web. .

Shute, Nancy. “For Kids, Self-Control Factors Into Future Success.” National Public Radio. 11 Feb. 2011. Web. .

Bernier, Annie, Stephenie M. Carlson, and Natasha Whipple. “From External Regulation to Self-Regulation: Early Parenting Precursors of Young Children’s Executive Functioning.” Child Development 81.1 (2010): 326-39.

Aamodt, Sandra. “How Self-Control Develops.” Big Think. N.p., 25 Mar. 2012. Web. .

Aamodt, Sandra, and Sam Wang. “Building Self-Control, the American Way.” New York Times. 17 Feb. 2012. Web. .

Blair, Clancy, and Rachel Peters Razza. “Relating Effortful Control, Executive Function, and False Belief Understanding to Emerging Math and Literacy Ability in Kindergarten.” Child Development 78.2 (2007): 647-63.

Bull, Rebecca, and Gala Scerif. “Executive Functioning as a Predictor of Children’s Mathematics Ability: Inhibition, Switching, and Working Memory.”Developmental Neuropsychology 19.3 (2001): 273-93.

Gathercole, Susan E., Claire Tiffany, Josie Briscoe, and Annabel Thorn. “Developmental Consequences of Poor Phonological Short-term Memory Function in Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46.6 (2005): 598-611.

Make believe

Diamond, Adele, W. Steven Barnett, Jessica Thomas, and Sarah Munro. “Preschool Program Improves Cognitive Control.” Science 318.5855 (2007): 1387-388.

Willingham, Daniel. “Tools of the Mind: Promising Pre-k Curriculum Looking Less Promising.” 27 Aug. 2012. Web. .

Paul, Annie Murphy. “In The Brilliant Report: Studies On Executive Function And Exercise.” 11 Mar. 2013. Web. .

What a great playroom looks like

Medina, John. “Brain Rules for Baby.” Pear Press, 2010.

Nurture creativity

Shaughnessy, Michael F. “An Interview with E. Paul Torrance: About Creativity.”Educational Psychology Review 10.4 (1998): 441-52.

Azzam, Amy M. “Why Creativity Now? A Conversation with Sir Ken Robinson.”Educational Leadership 67.1 (2009): 22-26.

Ogletree, Earl J. “The Comparative Status of the Creative Thinking Ability of Waldorf Education Students: A Survey.” Sept. 1996. Web. .

Ask ‘Why?’ and ‘What if?’

Dyer, Jeffrey H., Hal B. Gregerson, and Clayton M. Christensen. “The Innovator’s DNA.” Harvard Business Review. Dec. 2009. .

Dyer, Jeff, and Hal Gregerson. “Learn How to Think Different(ly).” Harvard Business Review Blog Network. 27 Sept. 2011. Web. .

Dyer, Jeffrey H., Hal B. Gregersen, and Clayton Christensen. “Entrepreneur Behaviors, Opportunity Recognition, and the Origins of Innovative Ventures.” Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 2.4 (2008): 317-38.

“Avoiding Ivy League Preschool Syndrome.” Mr. Money Mustache. 12 Oct. 2011. Web. .

5 Dangerous Things You Should Let Your Kids Do. Perf. Gerver Tulley. TED Talks. Mar. 2007. Web. .


Choose empathy first

The Gottman Institute. Research FAQs. Web. .

Create more ups than downs

Gottman, John, and Nan Silver. “What Makes Marriage Work?” Psychology Today. 1 Mar. 1994. Web. .

The Gottman Institute. Research FAQs. Web. .

Know your child

Van Den Boom, Dymphna C. “The Influence of Temperament and Mothering on Attachment and Exploration: An Experimental Manipulation of Sensitive Responsiveness among Lower-Class Mothers with Irritable Infants.” Child Development 65.5 (1994): 1457-477.

Ollendick, Thomas H., and Ronald J. Prinz, eds. Advances in Clinical Psychology. Vol. 19. New York City: Plenum, 1977.

McClowery, Sandra Graham, Eileen T. Rodriguez, and Robyn Koslowitz. “Temperament-Based Intervention: Re-examining Goodness of Fit.” European Journal of Developmental Science 2.1 (2008): 120-35.

“Tips on Temperament.” Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families. Web. .

Hold weekly family meetings

Feiler, Bruce S. The Secrets of Happy Families: Improve Your Mornings, Rethink Family Dinner, Fight Smarter, Go out and Play, and Much More. New York, NY: William Morrow, 2013.

Put down your phone

Boone, R. Thomas, and Joseph G. Cunningham. “Children’s Decoding of Emotion in Expressive Body Movement: The Development of Cue Attunement.” Developmental Psychology 34 (1998): 1007-016.

Liebal, Kristin, Malinda Carpenter, and Michael Tomasello. “Young Children’s Understanding of Markedness in Non-verbal Communication.” Journal of Child Language 38.4 (2011): 888-903.

(Almost) No TV before age 2

“Media Use by Children Younger Than 2 Years.” Pediatrics 128.5 (2011): 1040-1045.

Zimmerman, Frederick K., Dimitri A. Christakis, and Andrew N. Meltzoff. “Television and DVD/Video Viewing in Children Younger Than 2 Years.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 161.5 (2007): 473-79.

A little TV after age 2

“Council on Communications and Media: Children, Adolescents, and the Media.”Pediatrics (2013). 28 Oct. 2013. Web.

Linebarger, Deborah L., and Dale Walker. “Infants’ and Toddlers’ Television Viewing and Language Outcomes.” American Behavioral Scientist 48.5 (2005): 624-45.

Saint Louis, Catherine. “Certain Television Fare Can Help Ease Aggression in Young Children, Study Finds.” New York Times. 18 Feb. 2013. Web. .

Shaw, Jonathan. “The Deadliest Sin.” Harvard Business Review. Mar.-Apr. 2004. Web. .

Rideout, Victoria, and Elizabeth Hamel. “The Media Family: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers, Preschoolers, and Their Parents.” Kaiser Family Foundation. May 2006. Web. .

Parker-Pope, Tara. “TV Background Noise Disrupts Child Play.” New York Times. 16 July 2008. Web. .

Schmidt, Marie Evans, Tiffany A. Pempek, Heather L. Kirkorian, Anne Frankenfield Lund, and Daniel R. Anderson. “The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children.” Child Development 79.4 (2008): 1137-1151.

Ostrov, Jaime M., Douglas A. Gentile, and Adam D. Mullins. “Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 34 (2012): 38-44.

Mendelsohn, A.L., C.A. Brockmeyer, B.P. Dreyer, A.H. Fierman, S. Berkule-Silberman, and S. Tomopoulos. “Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?” Infant and Child Development 19 (2010): 577-93.

Mares, M.L., and E. Acosta. “Be Kind to Three-legged Dogs: Children’s Literal Interpretations of TV’s Moral Lessons.” Media Psychology 11.3 (2008): 377-99.

“Television and the Under 3 Crowd: Making Good Decisions About “Screen Time” for Young Children.” Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families. 2009. Web. .

Tandon, PS, C. Zhou, P. Lozano, and DA Christakis. “Preschoolers’ Total Daily Screen Time at Home and by Type of Child Care.” Journal of Pediatrics 158.2 (2011): 297-300.

Dennison, Barbara A., Theresa J. Russo, Patrick A. Burdick, and Paul L. Jenkins. “An Intervention to Reduce Television Viewing by Preschool Children.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 158.2 (2004): 170-76.

Make screen time social

Worthen, Ben. “What Happens When Toddlers Zone Out With an IPad.” The Wall Street Journal. 22 May 2012. Web. .

Hu, Elise. “What You Need To Know About Babies, Toddlers And Screen Time.”National Public Radio. 28 Oct. 2013. Web. .

“Council on Communications and Media: Children, Adolescents, and the Media.”Pediatrics (2013). 28 Oct. 2013. Web.

Semeniuk, Ivan. “The murky distinction between educational and ‘mindless’ screen time.” The Globe and Mail. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. .

Almond, Steve. “My Kids Are Obsessed With Technology, and It’s All My Fault.” New York Times. 21 June 2013. Web. .

Shapiro, Jordan. “Why Playing Video Games Makes You a Better Dad.” Forbes. 15 Nov. 2012. Web. .

Degnan, Taryn. “How Touchscreens Are Changing the World for Kids.” Common Sense Media. 9 May 2013. Web. .

Shute, Nancy. “Kids Watch TV As Parents Do, Not As They Say.” National Public Radio. 15 July 2013. Web. .

Painter, Kim. “Most Parents Not Worried about Children’s Screen Time.” USA Today. 4 June 2013. Web. .

“Parents’ TV Viewing Habits Influence Kids’ Screen Time.” American Academy of Pediatrics. 15 July 2013. Web. .

Neyfakh, Leon. “Why You Can’t Stop Checking Your Phone.” The Boston Globe. 6 Oct. 2013. Web. .

Allow mistakes, discomfort, boredom

Carey, Benedict. “You’re Bored, but Your Brain Is Tuned In.” New York Times. 5 Aug. 2008. Web. .


Be firm but warm

Maccoby, Eleanor E. “Parenting and Its Effects on Children: On Reading and Misreading Behavior Genetics.” Annual Review of Psychology 51 (2000): 1-27.

Dewar, Gwen. “Permissive parenting: A parenting science guide to the research.” Parenting Science. .

Baumrind, Diana. “The Influence of Parenting Style of Adolescent Competence and Substance Use.” The Journal of Early Adolescence 11.1 (1991): 56-95.

Follow four rules about rules

Medina, John. “Brain Rules for Baby.” Pear Press, 2010.

Label intense emotions

Herbert, Cornelia, Anca Sfärlea, and Terry Blumenthal. “Your Emotion or Mine: Labeling Feelings Alters Emotional Face Perception—an ERP Study on Automatic and Intentional Affect Labeling.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (2013).

“Putting Feelings Into Words Produces Therapeutic Effects In The Brain.” Science Daily. 22 June 2007. Web. .

Denham, S.A., and R. Burton. “A Social-emotional Intervention for At-risk 4-year-olds.”Journal of School Psychology 34.3 (1996): 225-45.

Domitrovich, C.E., R. Cortes, and M.T. Greenberg. “Preschool PATHS: Promoting Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children.” Proc. of 6th National Head Start Research Conference, Washington, D.C.

Moore, B., and K. Beland. “Evaluation of Second Step, Preschool-kindergarten: A Violence Prevention Curriculum Kit.” Proc. of Committee for Children, Seattle, Washington.

Webster-Stratton, C., and M. Hammond. “Treating Children with Early-onset Conduct Problems: A Comparison of Child and Parent Training Interventions.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65.1 (1997): 93-109.

Teach instead of punish

Steinberg, Laurence. “Authoritative Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment Across Varied Ecological Niches.” Presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (Kansas City, MO, April 1989).

Tangney, JP, P. Wagner, C. Fletcher, and R. Gramzow. “Shamed into Anger? The Relation of Shame and Guilt to Anger and Self-reported Aggression.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62.4 (1992): 669-75.

Natkin, Sarina Behar. “Help! My Preschooler Is Hitting!” Grow Parenting: Cultivating Healthy Families. 15 May 2012. Web. .

Bayer, Alicia. “Attachment Parenting 101: What Should I Do If My Child Talks Back?” Examiner. 17 Sept. 2010. Web. .

“The Discipline of Squats.” Blue Cotton Memory. 20 July 2009. Web. .

Bronson, Po. “Learning to Lie.” New York Magazine. 10 Feb. 2008. Web. .

Consider the consequences

“Responding to Misbehavior.” Responsive Classroom. Nov. 2011. Web. .

“Three Types of Logical Consequences.” Responsive Classroom. Web. .

Kohlberg, L. “The Development of Children’s Orientations toward a Moral Order.” Vita Humana 6 (1963): 11-33.

Rock your routines

Feiler, Bruce S. The Secrets of Happy Families: Improve Your Mornings, Rethink Family Dinner, Fight Smarter, Go out and Play, and Much More. New York, NY: William Morrow, 2013.

Call a calm-down, not a time-out

Moyer, Melinda Wenner. “Are Timeouts Messing Up Your Kids?” Slate. 24 Apr. 2013. Web. .

Morawska, Alina, and Matthew Sanders. “Parental Use of Time Out Revisited: A Useful or Harmful Parenting Strategy?” Journal of Child and Family Studies 20.1 (2011): 1-8.

Erford, Bradley T. “A Modified Time-out Procedure for Children with Noncompliant or Defiant Behaviors.” Professional School Counseling 2.3 (1999): 205-10.

Roberts, Mark W., Robert J. McMahon, Rex Forehand, and Lewis Humphreys. “The Effect of Parental Instruction-giving on Child Compliance.” Behavior Therapy 9.5 (1978): 793-98.

Ask, ‘Can you think of a better way?’

Kamins, Melissa L., and Carol S. Dweck. “Person Versus Process Praise and Criticism: Implications for Contingent Self-Worth and Coping.” Developmental Psychology 35.3 (1999): 835-47.

Move / Slow Down

Rock, jiggle, and swing

Eliot, Lise. What’s Going on in There?: How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life. New York, NY: Bantam, 1999.

Keep moving

Shaw, Jonathan. “The Deadliest Sin.” Harvard Business Review. Mar.-Apr. 2004. Web. .

“Exercise: A Changing Perscription.” Harvard Business Review. Mar.-Apr. 2004. Web. .

Vlahos, James. “Is Sitting a Lethal Activity?” New York Times. 14 Apr. 2011. Web. .

Ananthaswamy, Anil. “Why Is Exercise Such a Chore?” Slate. N.p., 16 June 2013. Web. .

“Sitting Time Associated with Increased Risk of Chronic Diseases.” Kansas State University News and Editorial Services. 18 Feb. 2013. Web. .

George, Emma S., Richard R. Rosenkranz, and Gregory S. Kolt. “Chronic Disease and Sitting Time in Middle-aged Australian Males: Findings from the 45 and Up Study.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10.20 (2013).

Dworley. “Fancy Ikea Treadmill Desk.” Instructables. N.p., n.d. Web. .

Be still

Bhanoo, Sindya N. “How Meditation May Change the Brain.” New York Times. 28 Jan. 2011. Web. .

“Scientific Evidence That Transcendental Meditation Works.” David Lynch Foundation. Web. .

Hölzel, Britta K., James Carmody, Mark Vangel, Christina Congleton, Sita M. Yerramsetti, Tim Gard, and Sara W. Lazar. “Mindfulness Practice Leads to Increases in Regional Brain Gray Matter Density.” Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 191.1 (2011): 36-43.

Hanc, John. “In Sitting Still, a Bench Press for the Brain.” New York Times. N.p., 9 May 2012. Web. .

Lutz, A., J. Brefczynski-Lewis, T. Johnstone, and RJ Davidson. “Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise.” PLoS ONE 26.3 (2008).

Blakeslee, Sandra. “Study Suggests Meditation Can Help Train Attention.” New York Times. 8 May 2007. Web. .

Hoffman, Jan. “How Meditation Might Boost Your Test Scores.” New York Times. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. .

Micucci, Dana. “International Education: Meditation Helps Students.” New York Times. 15 Feb. 2005. Web. .

“University of Michigan study finds improved emotional development in early adolescent African American children practicing Transcendental Meditation.” David Lynch Foundation. Web. .

Work part-time if you can (maybe less)

Wang, Wendy. “Mothers and Work: What’s ‘ideal’?” Pew Research Center. 19 Aug. 2013. Web. .

Parker, Kim, and Wendy Wang. “Modern Parenthood.” Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. 14 Mar. 2013. Web. .

Buchler, Cheryl, and Marion O’Brien. “Mothers’ Part-Time Employment: Associations With Mother and Family Well-Being.” Journal of Family Psychology 25.6 (2011): 895-906.

Ready and Prepared

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